The controlled immobilization of biomolecules onto surfaces is relevant in biosensing and cell biological research. Spatial control is achieved by surface-tethering molecules in micro- or nanoscale patterns. Yet, there is an increasing demand for temporal control over how long biomolecular cargo stays immobilized until released into the medium. Here, we present a DNA hybridization-based approach to reversibly anchor biomolecular cargo onto micropatterned surfaces. Cargo is linked to a DNA oligonucleotide that hybridizes to a sequence-complementary, surface-tethered strand. The cargo is released from the substrate by the addition of an oligonucleotide that disrupts the duplex interaction via toehold-mediated strand displacement. The unbound tether strand can be reloaded. The generic strategy is implemented with small-molecule or protein cargo, varying DNA sequences, and multiple surface patterning routes. The approach may be used as a tool in biological research to switch membrane proteins from a locally fixed to a free state, or in biosensing to shed biomolecular receptors to regenerate the sensor surface.
- DNA, A-Form/chemistry
- Immobilized Nucleic Acids/chemistry
- Immobilized Proteins/chemistry
- Nucleic Acid Hybridization
- Serum Albumin, Bovine/chemistry
- Surface Properties