Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Identification of risk groups for adjustment problems

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328 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the co-occurrence of traditional bullying, cyberbullying, traditional victimization, and cybervictimization, and analyzed whether students belonging to particular groups of bullies (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), victims (e.g., traditional, cyber, or both), and bully-victims differed regarding adjustment. Seven hundred sixty-one adolescents (49% boys) aged 14-19 years (M = 15.6 years) were surveyed. More students than expected by chance were totally uninvolved, more students were traditional bully-victims, and more students were combined bully-victims (traditional and cyber). The highest risks for poor adjustment (high scores in reactive and instrumental aggression, depressive, and somatic symptoms) were observed in students who were identified as combined bully-victims (traditional and cyber). In addition gender differences were examined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-213
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjustment
  • Aggression
  • Configurai frequency analysis
  • Cyberbullying
  • Cybervictimization


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