TexYZ: Embroidering Enameled Wires for Three Degree-of-Freedom Mutual Capacitive Sensing

Roland Aigner, Andreas Pointner, Thomas Preindl, Rainer Danner, Michael Haller

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingsConference contributionpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we present TexYZ, a method for rapid and efortless manufacturing of textile mutual capacitive sensors using a commodity embroidery machine. We use enameled wire as a bobbin thread to yield textile capacitors with high quality and consistency. As a consequence, we are able to leverage the precision and expressiveness of projected mutual capacitance for textile electronics, even when size is limited. Harnessing the assets of machine embroidery, we implement and analyze fve distinct electrode patterns, examine the resulting electrical features with respect to geometrical attributes, and demonstrate the feasibility of two promising candidates for small-scale matrix layouts. The resulting sensor patches are further evaluated in terms of capacitance homogeneity, signalto- noise ratio, sensing range, and washability. Finally, we demonstrate two use case scenarios, primarily focusing on continuous input with up to three degrees-of-freedom.

Original languageEnglish (American)
Title of host publicationCHI 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Subtitle of host publicationMaking Waves, Combining Strengths
Place of PublicationNew YorkNYUnited States
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4503-8096-6
Publication statusPublished - 6 May 2021
EventCHI 2021 - Virtual, Yokohama, Japan
Duration: 8 May 202113 May 2021

Publication series

NameConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings


ConferenceCHI 2021
Internet address


  • Electronic textile
  • Embroidery
  • Multi-touch
  • Mutual capacitive sensing
  • Smart textiles
  • Textile sensors
  • Wearables


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