Telling Eyes: Linking Eye-Tracking Indicators to Affective Variables

Andreas Winklbauer, Barbara Stiglbauer, Michael Lankes, Maurice Sporn

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingsConference contributionpeer-review

Abstract

Research has tried to link affective states to different eye-tracking measures with varying success. Although previous research has proposed that using live eye-tracking data for video games could considerably enhance adaptive gameplay techniques' capabilities, little research has been done. The main goal of the current study was to link eye-tracking indicators to affective states (confusion, frustration). Thirty-nine participants were recruited to play a riddle game in virtual reality similar to the game "Portal", with levels differently manipulating affective states in a within-study design. Participants did self-rate confusion and frustration retrospectively watching a recording of their gameplay. It was shown that different levels of frustration and confusion could be evoked. Hypotheses about the relationship between confusion/frustration and eye-tracking data could only be partially supported. Analyses revealed various possible reasons for contradictory results and several implications for future research, including aspects of eye-tracking indicators and the underlying eye-tracking technology.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 18th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, FDG 2023
EditorsPhil Lopes, Filipe Luz, Antonios Liapis, Henrik Engstrom
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
ISBN (Electronic)9781450398565
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2023
Event18th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, FDG 2023 - Lisbon, Portugal
Duration: 11 Apr 202314 Apr 2023

Publication series

NameACM International Conference Proceeding Series

Conference

Conference18th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, FDG 2023
Country/TerritoryPortugal
CityLisbon
Period11.04.202314.04.2023

Keywords

  • affect
  • confusion
  • eye-tracking
  • gaming
  • Virtual reality

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