T cell activation is determined by the number of presented antigens.

J Deeg, M Axmann, J Matic, A Liapis, D Depoil, J Afrose, S Curado, ML Dustin, JP Spatz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)


Antigen recognition is a key event during T cell activation. Here, we introduce nanopatterned antigen arrays that mimic the antigen presenting cell surface during T cell activation. The assessment of activation related events revealed the requirement of a minimal density of 90-140 stimulating major histocompatibility complex class II proteins (pMHC) molecules per μm 2. We demonstrate that these substrates induce T cell responses in a pMHC dose-dependent manner and that the number of presented pMHCs dominates over local pMHC density.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5619-5626
Number of pages8
JournalNano Letters
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2013


  • Nanopattern
  • T cell activation
  • TCR microclusters
  • artificial antigen-presenting cell
  • immunological synapse
  • nanostructures
  • Humans
  • Synapses/immunology
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology
  • Membrane Proteins/immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation/immunology
  • Nanoparticles/chemistry
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells/chemistry
  • T-Lymphocytes/chemistry


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