SEE++: A biomechanical model of the oculomotor plant

T. Haslwanter, M. Buchberger, T. Kaltofen, R. Hoerantner, S. Priglinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


The consequences of changes in the oculomotor system on the three-dimensional eye movements are difficult to grasp. Although changes to the rectus muscles can still be approximately understood with simplified geometric models, this approach no longer works with the oblique muscles. It is shown how SEE++, a biomechanical model of the oculomotor plant that was built on the ideas of Miller and Robinson (1984) can improve the understanding of the effects of changes to the oblique eye muscles. By displaying only selected muscles, and by illustrating the relative contribution of these muscles through color-coding the bulb surface, the functional properties of the oblique muscles can be presented in a much clearer way. Investigating the effects of a hyperactive inferior oblique muscle shows that this type of model can help to clarify the functional cause of a pathology, which can otherwise be unclear, even for common pathologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-14
Number of pages6
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2005


  • Computer simulation
  • Extraocular muscles
  • Modeling
  • Oculomotor system
  • Eye Movements/physiology
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Models, Biological
  • Computer Simulation
  • Humans
  • Oculomotor Muscles/physiology
  • Strabismus/physiopathology
  • Models, Anatomic


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