Photoacoustic imaging using an adaptive interferometer with a photorefractive crystal

Armin Hochreiner, Thomas Berer, Hubert Grün, Michael Leitner, Peter Burgholzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper we report on remote three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging without the need for a coupling agent or other aids (e.g. detector foils) by utilizing a two-wave mixing interferometer (TWMI). In this technique the beams coming from sample and reference are brought to interfere in a Bi12SiO20 photorefractive crystal (PRC). Such a setup allows the measurement of ultrasonic displacements on rough sample surfaces. After data acquisition the initial pressure distribution is reconstructed by a Fourier domain synthetic aperture focusing technique (FSAFT). We present three-dimensional imaging of a hair ribbon phantom, on biological samples with embedded artificial blood vessels or pig bristles, and measurements on a human forearm in-vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)508-517
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biophotonics
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


  • Interferometer
  • Photoacoustic imaging
  • Photorefractive crystal
  • Ultrasound detection


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