On the Consequences of Electronic Performance Monitoring in Organizations: Theory and Evidence

Thomas Kalischko, René Riedl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The potential applications of information and communication technologies in the workplace are wide-ranging and, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic, have increasingly found their way into the field of electronic performance monitoring (EPM) of employees. This study aims to examine the influence of EPM on individual performance considering the aspects of privacy invasion, organizational trust and individual stress within an organization. Thus, important insights are generated for academia as well as business.

A theoretical framework was developed which conceptualizes perceived EPM as independent variable and individual performance as dependent variable. Moreover, the framework conceptualizes three mediator variables (privacy invasion, organizational trust and individual stress). Based on a large-scale survey (N = 1,119), nine hypotheses were tested that were derived from the developed framework.

The results indicate that perception of EPM significantly increases privacy invasion, reduces organizational trust, increases individual stress and ultimately reduces individual performance. Moreover, it was found that privacy invasion reduces organizational trust and that this lowered trust increases individual stress. Altogether, these findings suggest that the use of EPM by employers may be associated with significant negative consequences.

This research enriches the literature on digital transformation, as well as human–machine interaction, by adopting a multidimensional theoretical and empirical perspective regarding EPM in the workplace context, in which the influence of EPM perceptions on individual performance is examined under the influence of different aspects (privacy invasion, organizational trust and individual stress) not currently considered in this combination in the literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-79
Number of pages30
JournalDigital Transformation and Society
Issue number1
Early online date22 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2024


  • Electronic performance monitoring
  • Privacy invasion
  • Organizational trust
  • Individual stress
  • Individual performance
  • Surveillance


Dive into the research topics of 'On the Consequences of Electronic Performance Monitoring in Organizations: Theory and Evidence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this