Design-oriented research has evolved as a major research paradigm in the academic discipline of information systems (IS) aiming at the design of innovative and useful IT artifacts such as methods, models, constructs, and instantiations. With the concept of "user-perception" at the core of this approach, it appears promising to explore the potentials of neuroscience in design-oriented research that allow for measuring physiological effects of people interfering with artifacts. In this paper, we discuss fields of application concerning both the design and evaluation of artifacts. However, we also argue that neuroscience, despite its value for design-oriented IS research, should complement rather than substitute traditional research approaches and that results require thorough interpretation. We report on a first study that triangulates quantitative and neuroscientific data in the area of enterprise resource planning systems and indicate directions for future research.