Mixed reality (both virtual reality and augmented reality) technologies and applications have become increasingly important in recent years. However, from a technical, organizational and psychological point of view, there are still some challenges for industrial use in real operation - this is also proven by the well-known hype cycle of Gartner, who currently sees the technology in the ‘valley of disappointment’. The currently available products in the field of mixed reality are to be considered as individual solutions throughout and also suitable for a wide application under industrial conditions only conditionally. In addition, pre-projects with production companies and plant manufacturers show that the technologies and the associated operational opportunities are still largely unexploited for SMEs. This paper summarizes the challenges and potential research fields in the areas of interaction and usability, immersion and storytelling, and international business processes and stakeholder acceptance.