Machine learning identifies an immunological pattern associated with multiple juvenile idiopathic arthritis subtypes

Erika Van Nieuwenhove, Vasiliki Lagou, Lien Van Eyck, James Dooley, Ulrich Bodenhofer, Carlos Roca, Marijne Vandebergh, An Goris, Stéphanie Humblet-Baron, Carine Wouters, Adrian Liston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common class of childhood rheumatic diseases, with distinct disease subsets that may have diverging pathophysiological origins. Both adaptive and innate immune processes have been proposed as primary drivers, which may account for the observed clinical heterogeneity, but few high-depth studies have been performed. Methods Here we profiled the adaptive immune system of 85 patients with JIA and 43 age-matched controls with indepth flow cytometry and machine learning approaches. Results Immune profiling identified immunological changes in patients with JIA. This immune signature was shared across a broad spectrum of childhood inflammatory diseases. The immune signature was identified in clinically distinct subsets of JIA, but was accentuated in patients with systemic JIA and those patients with active disease. Despite the extensive overlap in the immunological spectrum exhibited by healthy children and patients with JIA, machine learning analysis of the data set proved capable of discriminating patients with JIA from healthy controls with ∼90% accuracy. Conclusions These results pave the way for large-scale immune phenotyping longitudinal studies of JIA. The ability to discriminate between patients with JIA and healthy individuals provides proof of principle for the use of machine learning to identify immune signatures that are predictive to treatment response group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-628
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Volume78
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

Keywords

  • Autoimmune diseases
  • B cells
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • T cells
  • Adaptive Immunity/immunology
  • Arthritis, Juvenile/immunology
  • Humans
  • Child, Preschool
  • Male
  • Machine Learning
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Immunophenotyping/methods
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Adolescent
  • Female
  • Child

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