Longitudinal antecedents and consequences of ethnic, cyber and offline victimization

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Abstract

Taking a socio-ecological theoretical perspective, the present study (1) examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations between offline, cyber, and ethnic victimization, and (2) investigated whether the same or different intra- and interpersonal variables are longitudinal risk or protective factors. A three-wave longitudinal study including 630 adolescents (50% boys, 12.52 years at wave 1, 7% first and 14% second generation immigrant) was utilized. Cross lagged panel models showed that neither offline victimization nor cyber victimization predicted ethnic victimization longitudinally. Positive peer relations, good class climate, high levels of school bonding, high levels of school motivation and high levels of self-efficacy at the beginning of grade 7 were protective factors for low levels of ethnic, cyber, and offline victimization at the end of grade 7. However, only high levels of ethnic victimization at the beginning of grade 7 were also risk factors for low levels of positive peer relations, school bonding and school motivation at the end of grade 7. Ethnic victimization at the end of grade 8 could not be predicted prospectively. Considering its unique negative consequences within grade 7, it is important to give ethnic victimization a special attention in anti-bullying programs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Developmental Psychology
Early online date22 Oct 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Oct 2023

Keywords

  • adolescence
  • cross-lagged panel model
  • cyber victimization
  • Ethnic victimization
  • offline victimization

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