Lipoprotein Particles as Shuttles for Hydrophilic Cargo

Florian Weber, Markus Axmann, Andreas Horner, Bettina Schwarzinger, Julian Weghuber, Birgit Plochberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lipoprotein particles (LPs) are excellent transporters and have been intensively studied in cardiovascular diseases, especially regarding parameters such as their class distribution and accumulation, site-specific delivery, cellular internalization, and escape from endo/lysosomal compartments. The aim of the present work is the hydrophilic cargo loading of LPs. As an exemplary proof-of-principle showcase, the glucose metabolism-regulating hormone, insulin, was successfully incorporated into high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The incorporation was studied and verified to be successful using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Fluorescence Microscopy (FM). Single-molecule-sensitive FM together with confocal imaging visualized the membrane interaction of single, insulin-loaded HDL particles and the subsequent cellular translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4).

Original languageEnglish
Article number471
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2023


  • atomic force microscopy
  • insulin
  • lipoprotein particles
  • shuttle for hydrophilic cargo
  • single-molecule-sensitive fluorescence microscopy


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