In-Situ Analysis of Behavior Patterns and User Experience of Automated Shuttle Bus Users

Philipp Wintersberger, Andreas Riener

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingsChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Automated shuttle buses operating in public transport have recently gained a lot of interest. They are seen as an important supplement to public transport in suburban areas that could otherwise not be served economically. Besides, clock-face scheduling of transport services can be increased and demand-responsive transit can be introduced easily and at a reasonable cost. Especially that part of the population without a driving license could highly benefit, increase self-sufficiency and quality of life. Due to a lack of systems in operation, recent user studies in this area have been conducted using surveys or simulated environments (Wizard-of-Oz, VR). In this article, we discuss the results of two user studies conducted with an automated shuttle bus operating in the field. Its aim was to assess user experience, acceptance and (mis)trust of technology from both the perspective of passengers inside the vehicle as well as vulnerable road users interacting with the vehicle in public space and to derive recommendations for the market introduction of similar services on a broader scale. Our results show that trust in/acceptance of automated shuttle buses is already high, but indicate also problems, such as a rather low driving speed (less use compared to walking) or unforeseeable maneuvers. In particular, the communication with other traffic participants in the exterior needs to be improved, e.g., with simple and standardized eHMIs, and the driving behavior should be adjusted to that of a conventional vehicle.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationStudies in Computational Intelligence
Number of pages27
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Publication series

NameStudies in Computational Intelligence
ISSN (Print)1860-949X
ISSN (Electronic)1860-9503


  • Automated shuttle buses
  • Behavior patterns
  • User acceptance
  • User and VRU perspectives
  • User experience
  • User-centered design


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