4 Citations (Scopus)


We use continuous optimisation and manual code changes to evolve up to 1024 Newton-Raphson numerical values embedded in an open source GNU C library glibc square root sqrt to implement a double precision cube root routine cbrt, binary logarithm log2 and reciprocal square root function for C in seconds. The GI inverted square root x -1/2 is far more accurate than Quake's InvSqrt, Quare root. GI shows potential for automatically creating mobile or low resource mote smart dust bespoke custom mathematical libraries with new functionality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Pages (from-to)7:1-7:30
Number of pages30
JournalACM Trans. Evol. Learn. Optim.
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jul 2021


  • Evolutionary computing
  • Newton's method
  • SBSE
  • data transplantation
  • glibc
  • search based software engineering
  • software engineering
  • software maintenance of empirical constants
  • vector normalisation


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