Frequency estimation in power systems using the Dynamic Leapfrog method

J. A. Jordaan, R. Živanović

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper introduces the Dynamic Leapfrog algorithm for estimating the frequency and other model parameters of a power system. It is also compared to the Newton method. These algorithms take into account an exponentially decaying DC component, fundamental frequency and components until the Mth harmonic. The parameters which are estimated are: amplitudes of the DC component and harmonics, the time constant of the decaying DC component, the frequency of the fundamental component and the phase angle of each harmonic. The Leapfrog method appears to be much more robust than the Newton method, since more accurate results were obtained when the assumed fundamental frequency was far away from the actual frequency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-457
Number of pages7
JournalMeasurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Frequency estimation
  • Newton method
  • Numerical analysis
  • Power system analysis


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