Formative Constructs Implemented via Common factors

Horst Treiblmaier, Patrick Mair, Peter Bentler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


Recently there has been a renewed interest in formative measurement and its role in properly specified models. Formative measurement models are difficult to identify, and hence to estimate and test. Existing solutions to the identification problem are shown to not adequately represent the formative constructs of interest. We propose a new two-step approach to operationalize a formatively measured construct that allows a closely matched common factor equivalent to be included in any structural equation model. We provide an artificial example and an original empirical study of privacy to illustrate our approach. Detailed proofs are given in an appendix.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalStructural Equation Modeling
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011


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