Eye Contact: Gaze as a Connector Between Spectators and Players in Online Games

Michael Lankes, Daniel Rammer, Bernhard Maurer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingsConference contributionpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes an experimental setting that investigates shared gaze integrations (constant gaze and eye contact) in games and their effects on the social presence perceived by different roles (players and spectators) in a remote scenario. In order to get insights, we conducted a study that is made up of 4 different conditions (2 roles and 2 gaze integrations). Results show, depending on the type of the gaze integration and the role, positive effects of gaze towards an increased awareness and engagement among participants. Through the inclusion of shared gaze information, a new nonverbal communication channel for players and spectators is created that presents an interesting design resource for future approaches of digital play. Designers should receive information on how to design gaze-based interfaces that do not distract players during play, and also give spectators the possibility to experience a game via the player’s eyes.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEntertainment Computing – ICEC 2017 - 16th IFIP TC 14 International Conference, Proceedings
EditorsNagisa Munekata, Junichi Hoshino, Itsuki Kunita
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Event16th International Conference on Entertainment Computing 2017 - Tsukuba, Japan
Duration: 18 Sept 201721 Sept 2017

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume10507 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference16th International Conference on Entertainment Computing 2017


  • Gaze-based interaction
  • Shared gaze
  • Social presence


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