Training simulations in Virtual Reality (VR) benefit from the technology's interactive and intuitive nature. Typically, the VR user is isolated in the virtual environment and an external instructor or spectators cannot support the learning progress. Previous research work presents solutions for isolated use cases, but lacks specific guidelines for the implementation of collaborative multi-device systems. We propose a method for expanding collaborative extended reality (XR) applications to multiple platforms to support collaborative learning, but also other types of applications such as remote collaboration and maintenance. In order to test our approach, we expanded an existing application to four different platforms - Steam VR, Microsoft Mixed Reality, smartphone/tablet and desktop computer. Based on lessons learned from our prototype, we propose a solution for multi-device networking and interaction on each platform. The main strengths of our approach are in the decoupling of local and networked objects and the common interface for interaction, which accommodates multiple platforms. We believe our approach can provide useful insights into collaborative training and serve as a good starting point for future projects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)896-903
Number of pages8
JournalProcedia Computer Science
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event3rd International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing, ISM 2021 - Linz, Austria
Duration: 19 Nov 202121 Nov 2021


  • augmented reality
  • collaboration
  • human-computer interaction
  • multi-device
  • network
  • tool
  • virtual reality


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