An Evaluation of Multicomponent Weft-Knit Twill Structures for Sensing Tensile Force

Roland Aigner, Frank Hepper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present multicomponent knit resistive sensors for tracking tensile force. The knits were fabricated using a Twill structure, which is a simple pattern featuring anisotropic elastic behavior, providing high stability along the course direction. Our sensors are made of two commercially available conductive yarn types, with highly different linear resistance. We present a variety of integration methods using the proposed Twill structure, all of which can be easily replicated on a two-bed weft-knitting machine. We evaluate the performance of the resulting sensor variations, with respect to consistency, hysteresis, short-term and long-term relaxation, and drift, among other metrics. We found that particulars of the knit's loop composition have a crucial effect on the consistency of the sensor readings. Furthermore, we show that knitting resistive yarn more tightly than the substrate material gives superior results and that improving elastic recoil by adding Lycra to the supporting substrate can considerably improve performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10411838
Pages (from-to)6293-6302
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024


  • Sensors
  • Yarn
  • Force
  • Fabrics
  • Resistance
  • Needles
  • Connectors
  • knitting
  • weft-knitting
  • textile sensor
  • resistive sensing
  • force sensor
  • e-textile
  • E-textile


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