Aircraft Cockpit Interaction in Virtual Reality with Visual, Auditive, and Vibrotactile Feedback

Stefan Auer, Christoph Anthes, Hans-Christian Jetter, Harald Reiterer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingsConference contributionpeer-review


Safety-critical interactive spaces for supervision and time-critical control tasks are usually characterized by many small displays and physical controls, typically found in control rooms or automotive, railway, and aviation cockpits. Using Virtual Reality (VR) simulations instead of a physical system can significantly reduce the training costs of these interactive spaces without risking real-world accidents or occupying expensive physical simulators. However, the user's physical interactions and feedback methods must be technologically mediated. Therefore, we conducted a within-subjects study with 24 participants and compared performance, task load, and simulator sickness during training of authentic aircraft cockpit manipulation tasks. The participants were asked to perform these tasks inside a VR flight simulator (VRFS) for three feedback methods (acoustic, haptic, and acoustic+haptic) and inside a physical flight simulator (PFS) of a commercial airplane cockpit. The study revealed a partial equivalence of VRFS and PFS, control-specific differences input elements, irrelevance of rudimentary vibrotactile feedback, slower movements in VR, as well as a preference for PFS.

Original languageEnglish (American)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction


  • Aviation
  • Cockpit
  • Flight Simulation
  • Pilot
  • Training


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