A multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system using planar gradiometers: data collection and calibration

Javier Rosell, Robert Merwa, Patricia Brunner, Hermann Scharfetter

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55 Citations (Scopus)


We developed a 14-channel multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system (MF-MIT) for biomedical applications. The excitation field is produced by a single coil and 14 planar gradiometers are used for signal detection. The object under measurement was rotated (16 steps per turn) to obtain a full data set for image reconstruction. We make measurements at frequencies from 50 kHz to 1 MHz using a single frequency excitation signal or a multifrequency signal containing several frequencies in this range. We used two acquisition boards giving a total of eight synchronous channels at a sample rate of 5 MS s -1 per channel. The real and imaginary parts of ΔB/B 0 were calculated using coherent demodulation at all injected frequencies. Calibration, averaging and drift cancellation techniques were used before image reconstruction. A plastic tank filled with saline (D = 19 cm) and with conductive and/or paramagnetic perturbations was measured for calibration and test purposes. We used a FEM model and an eddy current solver to evaluate the experimental results and to reconstruct the images. Measured equivalent input noise voltage for each channel was 2 nV Hz-1/2. Using coherent demodulation, with an integration time of 20 ms, the measured STD for the magnitude was 7 nVrms (close to the theoretical value only taking into account the amplifier's thermal noise). For long acquisition times the drift in the signal produced a bigger effect than the input noise (typical STD was 10 nV with a maximum of 35 nV at one channel) but this effect was reduced using a drift cancellation technique based on averaging. We were able to image a 2 S m-1 agar sphere (D = 4 cm) inside the tank filled with saline of 1 S m-1.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberS23
Pages (from-to)S271-S280
JournalPhysiological Measurement
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2006


  • Eddy currents
  • Magnetic induction spectroscopy
  • Tomography


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