A model for clubfoot based on micro-CT data

Gunther Windisch, Dietmar Salaberger, Walter Rosmarin, Johann Kastner, Gerhard Ulrich Exner, Verena Haldi-Brändle, Friedrich Anderhuber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


The pathological anatomy of idiopathic clubfoot has been investigated for more than 180 years using anatomy, computed tomography (CT), histology and microscopy. Seven idiopathic clubfeet and two normal feet of aborted fetuses were dissected in the present study, with special emphasis on the shape of the cartilage and bones. A three-dimensional (3D) micro-CT system, which generates a series of X-ray attenuation measurements, was used to produce computed reconstructed 3D data sets of each of the separated bones. Based on the micro-CT data scans a high-definition 3D colour printing system was used to make a four times enlarged clubfoot model, precisely presenting all the bony malformations. This model reflects the complexity of the anatomy of this disease and is designed to be used in the workshops of orthopaedic surgeons and physiotherapists, for training in new surgical and manipulation techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)761-766
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Anatomy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007


  • 3D printer
  • Clubfoot
  • Micro-CT
  • Model
  • Cartilage/diagnostic imaging
  • Bone and Bones/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Foot/diagnostic imaging
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Clubfoot/diagnostic imaging
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional
  • Models, Anatomic


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