The properties of short-fiber-reinforced composites depend on the fiber length of the reinforcing fibers. This fiber length is typically influenced by processing to different extents. In this work, we investigate the influence of processing, i.e., the influence of residence time achieved via different dosing points in compounding, and the fiber content on the fiber length and mechanical properties of short-carbon-fiber-reinforced polypropylene. We found that, with increasing fiber content, the fiber length decreases from 900 to 300 µm after compounding and from 500 to 250 µm after injection molding. Additionally, a decrease in residence time in the compounder leads to an increase in the fiber length of approx. 300 µm compared to the longer residence time. This is later reduced by the injection molding step, but the longer fibers are still longer in the final molded test specimen, thus resulting in a 5–10% increased tensile strength and elastic modulus as well as an some increase in impact strength. As the injection molding step showed considerable fiber length reduction (down to 250 µm), further investigations of injection molding should be undertaken to preserve fiber length better for the increased performance of these composites.