Scope: Known pharmacological activities of guava (Psidium guajava) include modulation of blood glucose levels. However, mechanistic details remain unclear in many cases. Methods and results: This study investigated the effects of different guava leaf and fruit extracts on intestinal glucose transport in vitro and on postprandial glucose levels in vivo. Substantial dose- and time-dependent glucose transport inhibition (up to 80%) was observed for both guava fruit and leaf extracts, at conceivable physiological concentrations in Caco-2 cells. Using sodium-containing (both glucose transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 [SGLT1] and glucose transporter 2 [GLUT2], are active) and sodium-free (only GLUT2 is active) conditions, we show that inhibition of GLUT2 was greater than that of SGLT1. Inhibitory properties of guava extracts also remained stable after digestive juice treatment, indicating a good chemical stability of the active substances. Furthermore, we could unequivocally show that guava extracts significantly reduced blood glucose levels (≈fourfold reduction) in a time-dependent manner in vivo (C57BL/6N mice). Extracts were characterized with respect to their main putative bioactive compounds (polyphenols) using HPLC and LC-MS. Conclusion: The data demonstrated that guava leaf and fruit extracts can potentially contribute to the regulation of blood glucose levels.