Real-world production scheduling scenarios are often not discrete, separable, iterative tasks but rather dynamic processes where both external (e.g., new orders, delivery shortages) and internal (e.g., machine breakdown, timing uncertainties, human interaction) influencing factors gradually or abruptly impact the production system. Solutions to these problems are often very specific to the application case or rely on simple problem formulations with known and stable parameters. This work presents a dynamic scheduling scenario for a production setup where little information about the system is known a priori. Instead of fully specifying all relevant problem data, the timing and batching behavior of machines are learned by a machine learning ensemble during operation. We demonstrate how a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm can utilize these models to tackle this dynamic optimization problem, compare the dynamic performance of a set of established construction heuristics and meta-heuristics and showcase how models and optimizers interact. The results obtained through an empirical study indicate that the interaction between optimization algorithm and machine learning models, as well as the real-time performance of the overall optimization system, can impact the performance of the production system. Especially in high-load situations, the dynamic algorithms that utilize solutions from previous problem epochs outperform the restarting construction heuristics by up to ~24%.
FachzeitschriftApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Jän. 2024