In the field of (food) toxicology, there is a strong trend of replacing animal trials with alternative methods for the assessment of adverse health effects in humans. The replacement of animal trials is not only driven by ethical concerns but also by the number of potential testing substances (food additives, packaging material, contaminants, and toxicants), which is steadily increasing. In vitro 2D cell culture applications in combination with in silico modeling might provide an applicable first response. However, those systems lack accurate predictions of metabolic actions. Thus, alternative in vivo models could fill the gap between cell culture and animal trials. In this review, we highlight relevant studies in the field and spotlight the applicability of alternative models, including C. elegans, D. rerio, Drosophila, HET-CAM and Lab-on-a-chip.