Currently the surgical training of vertebral augmentation
techniques is performed on patients or specimens.
To improve patient safety, the development of a novel
patient simulator was initiated. Artificial vertebrae should
be integrated to provide realistic haptic feedback. In a
previous study, resulting forces during transpedicular needle
insertions into formalin-fixed vertebral specimens were
measured. Based on these results, a specific polyurethane
foam recipe was covered by different resin shells. The
resulting insertion forces for the artificial vertebrae were
comparable to the specimen measurements. Based on the
resulting force during needle insertion into human vertebrae,
a suitable material composition for manufacturing artificial
vertebral segments was found.